Reports on this page cover basic facts and figures on smoking and tobacco use, plus a range of in-depth studies into who smokes, and why.
This document reviews a series of recent research papers and gives a high level overview of smoking and quitting in persons with mental illness.
Smoking and quitting - in the Workplace (May 2009)
A summary of literature evaluating workplace cessation programmes to find out what works, what type of workplaces implement them, the different cessation programmes that are used, who delivers the programmes, and the economic costs of programmes. It found that less intensive programmes had higher participation rates, and were also more cost effective than more intensive programmes. Programmes that had higher success rates included those with a mixture of self-help and professional counselling (either in the form of group therapy or telephone Quitlines).
Mental Illness and Quitting (Oct 2008)
Although the smoking rate is higher in people with mental illness than the overall population, clinical studies have shown that this group is willing to quit smoking, despite being less likely to access cessation related support.
While it would be ideal to identify a ‘crucial factor’ in cessation treatment approaches that is preferentially beneficial for those with mental illness, in reality many standard treatments are equally efficacious in this population. Additionally, studies have shown that in general, the more intensive the cessation therapy (in terms of time, the number of therapies or the amount of therapist contact time) the more likely it is to be effective.
Why do People Call Quitlines? (Aug 2008)
This review provides an insight into the range of settings known to generate referrals to quitline services worldwide, the characteristics of referral programmes, and the success rates of these programmes in making referrals to a quitline. Research indicates that quitlines are a valuable resource for smokers who would like to quit, however, they are often under-utilised.
Key messages from the review support the use of proactive referral strategies, linking formally with health services, and targeting smokers at a national and community level.
Young People and Quitting (Aug 2008)
This report summarise focus group findings from groups held with first-time Quitline callers aged 15 to 24 years. The research aimed to find out about their quitting experiences; their experiences of using the Quitline; and their thoughts on how the Quitline could be more responsive to smokers of their age. Findings drawn from these focus groups may inform a more responsive service to Quitline callers of this age cohort in terms of barriers to quitting, and to using the Quitline.
Pregnant Women – Using the Quitline (Jul 2008)
This report aims to outline how the Quitline could better work with pregnant callers and attract more pregnant women to use the service for support and advice. The report finds that while a desire to minimise the health risks of the unborn baby is the key motivator to quitting among pre-natal maternal smokers, the actual risks to the baby are poorly understood. There is also a very poor understanding of the appropriateness of the use of NRT during pregnancy and when breastfeeding among both pre-natal maternal smokers and health professionals; and there is a perception that the service is not appropriate for pregnant women. This suggests a need to provide more information about the safe use of NRT.
The research finds there is a lack of cessation support that women receive from their social circle – particularly their partner – and this results in them either choosing to isolate themselves from their social context and quitting, or fearing this isolation, continuing to smoke.
Pregnant Women and Quitting (May 2009)
A review of published academic and grey literature looking for ways of encouraging pregnant women to stop smoking by using a quitline service. Factors that contributed to an effective approach supporting pregnant women to quit using a quitline were also investigated. Information is also presented about factors that could hinder a pregnant woman’s referral to a quitline.
Older People and Quitting (Feb 2008)
Factsheet showing the experiences and quitting outcomes of Quitline callers aged 45 or over.
Māori Smoking (Apr 2006)
Factsheet with numerous facts and figures about Māori smoking including smoking rates, smoking in the home, age breakdowns and so on.
This research provides insights and information about quitting that could be used in future media and communications campaigns, and wider strategy and initiative development. The ‘tipping point’ model was used as the foundation for the research analysis. At the tipping point, the downsides of smoking and/or the benefits of quitting outweigh the benefits of smoking, and/or the downsides of quitting.
Youth and Smoking Factsheet (Feb 2005)
Factsheet giving in-depth information about youth smoking in New Zealand, statistical breakdowns, information about health effects and nicotine dependence, and use of cessation programmes by youth.
Smoking and Tobacco – the basics (Jul 2004)
General information factsheet giving details about tobacco, the health effects of smoking, smoking rates in New Zealand and statistics from the Quitline.
Pacific Peoples and Smoking (Jul 2004)
Factsheet with numerous facts and figures about smoking among Pacific people, including smoking rates, smoking in the home, age breakdowns and so on.